Antibacterial medicines or antibiotics treat bacterial infections in humans, animals, and plants. However, bacteria may eventually develop resistance against antibiotics-mediated killing by acquiring genetic mutations. Although antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, misuse or overuse of antibiotics can significantly escalate the process.
Antibiotic resistance has become one of the biggest public health concerns worldwide. It has been estimated that around 700,000 deaths occur each year globally due to infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. In the recent UN discussion at the 75th assembly, antibiotic resistance has been referred to as a “silent tsunami” that may cause 10 million deaths annually by 2050 and push 24 million people into poverty by 2030.
Besides strictly ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics, continuous monitoring of newly emerging drug-resistant bacterial strains and the discovery and development of innovative antibacterial drugs is of prime importance to halt the spread of antibiotic resistance.